睡眠呼吸障礙Sleep Apnea發生時,病人的血壓先下降,心跳過低,隨後呼吸恢復時心跳突然上升. HRV研究顯示睡眠中呼吸中止時,LF(交感)逐漸上升,HF(副交感)保持不變,也因此LF/HF(平衡指標)升高,身體企圖彌補呼吸中止的不良效應.
Cardiac sympathovagal balance during sleep apnea episodes.
Clin Physiol. 1996; 16(3):209-16 (ISSN: 0144-5979)
Vanninen E; Tuunainen A; Kansanen M; Uusitupa M; Länsimies E
Department of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
The main acute cardiovascular effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are elevation of blood pressure and reflectory bradycardia, which are followed by an abrupt tachycardia on resumption of breathing. This haemodynamic instability is related to hypoxemia and arousal, and may lead to increased risk from cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, as well as to the development of chronic arterial hypertension, in these patients. The aim of this study was to apply frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) measured from continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings to evaluate how cardiac autonomic function, and especially cardiac sympathovagal tone, changes during sleep apnea episodes. We identified 41 apneas leading to more than 4%-unit arterial oxygen desaturation in 12 patients (11 men, 1 woman (correction for women), age range 27-67 years). Frequency domain analysis of HRV was performed from ECG recordings using 4 min epochs starting 20 min before apnea began and lasting 20 min after the beginning of apnea. The mean (+/-SEM) fall in oxygen saturation during the apnea was 6.8 +/- 0.6%-units. While high frequency band (HF, reflects cardiac vagal activity) remained unchanged, low frequency band (LF, mainly sympathetic activity) showed a constant increase, leading to significant change in the sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio). In conclusion, concordantly with previous peripheral sympathetic-nerve recordings, frequency domain analysis of HRV is able to detect sympathetic activation during sleep apnea episodes, leading to marked change in the sympathovagal balance.